Glaser's Basic Teaching Model //Teaching Models//B.Ed Notes//TeacherScript


The Basic teaching model was developed by Robert Glaser in 1962 on the basis of psychological principles. It explains the relationship between teaching and learning.

It is called the Basic teaching model because

  • It presents a very basic analysis of the process of teaching in terms of the elements of teaching.
  • It applies to all levels of education i.e., elementary, secondary, higher, etc.
  • It is also applied to subject matter related to any subject as a teacher can use this model for teaching them.
  • Teaching for any length of time (40 minutes, 1 hour, weeks, etc.) is possible using this model.

Components of Glaser’s Basic Teaching Model:

The whole process is divided into four basic components

  • Instructional objectives
  • Entering behavior
  • Instructional procedures
  • Performance assessment

Instructional objectives:

These indicate the stipulated goals that a student is supposed to attain upon completion of a part of instruction.

Entering Behavior:

It means the initial behavior of the student before he enters the teaching-learning process.

It is essential to detect the entering behavior of the learner before giving instructions as it comprises the factors like previous knowledge of subjects, intellectual ability, learning ability…

The assessment of entering behavior is a significant aspect of an instructional process.

Instructional Procedures:

It is the most active or functional part of the teaching process.

It indicates the teaching method, procedure, strategies of teaching, and student – teacher interaction patterns which depend on the objectives and entry behavior of the learner.

This component depends on two previous components.

Performance Assessments:

Here ultimate behavior of the learner is tested so that feedback may be given.

The assessment of the performance may prove as an effective ‘feedback’ device for each of the steps

Evolution techniques used for the purpose of assessment tests are observation, interview, rating scale, etc.

The objectives may e modified and instructional procedures may e improved based on the end results shown under the performance step.

Fundamental Elements Of Teaching Model:

Focus: – This model attempts to pinpoint the process and major activities comprising the entire teaching, and learning process. It also brings into the light sequence to be followed in the instructional process.

Syntax: – In this model flow of activities is sequential as listed below: -

(a) First, the objectives to be followed are fixed in accordance with Bloom’s Taxonomy.

(b) Then the entering behaviour showing the understanding and background of the student is determined.

(c) Thereafter the instruction work is carried out to achieve the objectives keeping in view the entering behaviour of the learner.

(d) The ultimate behaviour of the learner is determined by using different types of tests.

Social System:

This model structured to be dominated by the active role and control of the teacher on the whole process of instruction from the beginning till the end. The success of this model depends upon the competency and ability of the teacher in terms of various skills like the formulation of objectives, use of proper strategies, techniques of evolution, etc.

Principles of reaction: - main principles of reaction are as follows.

(a) Principles of interdependence: -the four stages involving objectives, entry behaviour, instructional process and assessment are interconnected and interdependent. The student’s responses are to be understood and dealt with in the light of the interaction and interdependence, process, and assessments.

(b) The principle of active involvement: -Proper execution of this model requires a lot of activity on the part of the teacher. He has to acquire essential skills in formulation of objectives, assessment of entry and terminal behaviours and devising suitable means and ways of realization of the set objectives. Understanding the potential and deficiencies of the students is required at every stage of the teacher in order to achieve the objectives.

(c) Principles of correction and follow-up: – An assessment is made after teaching. In case the results are not in accordance with set objectives, gaps and deficiencies are found by the teacher. Then he tries to rectify the drawbacks by taking corrective measures.

Support system: – The teacher needs the following support systems for its success.

(a) Proper environment: – proper teaching-learning environment and situations are required for the use of suitable teaching strategies.

(b) Pre-service and In-service facilities: - availability of adequate pre-service and in-service activities to the teachers to acquire needed skills for using this model.

(c) Availability of appropriate evolution device for the assessment of entering and terminal behavior of the students.

Application of this model : – 

Since the model is quite systematic and structured, it is applicable to almost all learning and teaching situations. It implies a personal contact between the teacher and the student. It implies a greater emphasis on the competency of the teacher rather than on his personality.


Post a Comment