Resource Management - Human Resource, Material resource and Financial Resource Management


Resource management is acquiring, allocating and managing the resources, such as individuals and their skills, finances, technology, materials, machinery and natural resources required for a project. Resource management ensures that internal and external resources are used effectively on time and to budget.

When it comes to education, resource management involves making a strategic plan for organizing and using school resources.

Resource Management plays an important and critical role to manage a school. There are three basic resources which are needed to manage a school. They are –


Human Resources:

Human  resource  management  can  be  defined  as  a  process  and  effort  to  develop, motivate, and evaluate the overall human resources needed by the organization in achieving its objectives.

Its ultimate aim is to help the organization to achieve success. Therefore it prepares people for this aim.

It is also called as Personnel management. The Resources includes - Teachers, Mentors, Managers, and other school staff.

Human resource management system in school

The broad purpose of the human resource management function in any educational organization is to attract, develop, retain, and motivate personnel in order to achieve the school's mission. It defines the school's 'people objectives'.

The human resource management system in school helps schools to manage and train the teachers and other non-teaching staff to perform their duties well. It also helps in managing their other aspects of work like leave, salary, proxy, etc.

Functions of Human Resources Management in Education

Human resource management in education is a set of practices and methods of integrating and maintaining the teaching staff in the school so that the school can achieve their purpose and as well as meet the goals for which they were established.

The functions include the following:

i.                   Staff maintenance - include; promotion and transfer, motivation, staff safety, security and health services, prompt payment of salary, and ensuring a safe and healthy working environment

ii.                 Staff relations - There must be a good communication network in the school to enable workers to be constantly informed of the progress being made in the school. Staffs should be recognized as human beings with feelings, interest, needs and emotions and treating them as such with fairness and respect.

iii.              Staff development - The success of educational organization hinges on the strength and quality of the staff members. This can be done through in-service training, conference, workshop and seminars.

iv.              Recruitment of staff- Recruitment of staff in education deals with obtaining people with appropriate and necessary skills, abilities, knowledge and experience to fill the vacant teaching posts in schools.

v.                 Job performance reward - Staff performance would increase substantially if they are adequately compensated according to the quality and quantity of work done. This involves the design and administration of rewards for jobs performed.

vi.              Others including teacher proxy management, leave management, performance reports, task management, and many other similar things that make it easier for the school and its employees to manage their information.

Benefit of implementing an effective human resource management system:

  • Recruitment and Hiring: It is important to recruit and select the best educators and staff for the school. Only when a teacher teaches well can a student learn well. Hence, a human resource management system is not only helpful to the school administration and the teachers or staff but also the students.
  • Training and Development: Training can help teachers become more efficient in their roles as educators, leading to increased student engagement and performance.
  • Conflict Management: Conflict resolution training can help teachers deal with conflicts with or between students and mitigate conflicts in schools.
  • Compensation: HR determines salaries based on roles, job descriptions, level of work, and performance. And for all the teaching and non-teaching staff, the HRMS helps them stay updated with their regular salary status.
  • Retention: HR is concerned about motivating teachers and staff to higher levels of performance, commitment, and longer tenure.

·         The HR management system helps school administration to keep a track of employee data and tasks regarding the school.

·         It also allows them to store every important information of the employee of the school for future reference.

Material Resources:

Material resource management is concerned with the integrated approach to planning, organising, controlling of the flow of materials as per the demands, purchase through internal operations to the service point through distribution to the consumers.

Material resource management in schools is a planning tool for modernization of the existing facilities; developing the helpful measures for continuous maintenance, reconstruction and rejuvenation.

Material resources include any items the school currently owns. These include school furniture, equipment, technology, curriculum materials, black boards, chalks , benches , desks, textbooks, and any other materials within the school.

Basic principles of material resource management:

The basic principles of material resource management are effective management and supervision. These are dependent on managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, reporting and budgeting.

In addition there is a need for adopting sound methods of purchasing the resources, making skillful and hard poised negotiations so as to get the cheap and best commodities. For this one needs to establish an effective purchase system.

Basic purposes of material resource management in educational institutions are:-

• To have adequate materials on hand when needed

• To pay the lowest possible prices, consistent with quality and value requirement for purchased materials

• To minimize the inventory investment

• To operate efficiently

Various functions of material resource management are:

• Planning and forecasting of the requirement of material resources.

• Procurement of material resources.

• Storage of material resources.

• Maintenance and repair of equipment and other assets.

The reasons to have material resource management in educational institutions:

• An educational institution can expect innumerable benefits from effective planning of material resource management.

• Management of material resources aims at reducing the cost of production so as to help an educational institution increase its profits and outputs.  

• Material resource management provides creative ways to take up the unintended impacts of the core services and put them out of sight.

• This integration is also helpful in faster and effective functioning that involves a large amount of data to be used for planning.

• Integrating various functions in which material resources are used involves greater coordination at all levels of management for the sake of better performance.

Financial Resource management:

Concept of Financial Resource Management: In educational institutions, financial management refers to that management activity that is concerned with decisions on how to procure funds, of an organization's financial resources, disburse and give account of funds provided for the implementation of educational programmes.

The importance of financial Resource management

  • It provides guidance in financial planning.
  • It assists in acquiring funds from different sources.
  • It helps in investing an appropriate amount of funds.
  • It increases organisational efficiency.
  • It reduces delay production.
  • It cut down financial costs.
  • It reduces cost of fund.
  • It ensures proper use of fund.
  • It helps business firm to take financial decisions.
  • It prepares guideline for earning maximum profits with minimum cost.
  • It increases shareholders’ wealth.
  • It can control the financial aspects of the business.
  • It provides information through financial reporting.
  • It makes the employees aware of saving funds.

Activities in financial management for education institutions:

Financial management in school essentially means planning, organizing, directing and controlling the financial activities in schools so that the financial resources are used in an efficient and effective manner.

Financial management includes overseeing the funding for:

  • Budgeting
  • Administration
  • Generating income
  • Implementing educational programs/projects/activities
  • Procurement
  • Controlling financial resources
  • Employee salaries
  • Maintenance of the building and grounds
  • Student after-school and lunch programs, field trips, & special events
  • Classroom supplies, including textbooks & technology
  • Managing cash and debts
  • Preparing financial reports,
  • Auditing


Resource management is a system of management and utilization of all educational resources to carry out systematic cooperation and processes so that  effective education implementation can be achieved to realize the national education goals that have been aspired.

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